Adverb: An adverb is an element that adds some more information about time, place, manner, degree, circumstance and etc… of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
- she writes quickly. (Modifies: Verb)
- he is very polite. (Modifies: Adjective)
- they drive very slowly. (Modifies: Adverb)
kinds of Adverb.
- Adverbs of Manner.
- Adverbs of Place.
- Adverb of Time.
- Adverb of Frequency.
- Adverbs of Degree.
- Adverb of Sentence.
- Interrogative Adverbs.
- adverbs of Reason.
- Relative Adverbs.
- Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation.
1. Adverbs of Manner:
Adverbs which show that how or in what manner, way an action has been completed are called adverbs of manner.
(fastly, slowly, quickly, happily, sadly, well)
They secretly went to the marriage party.
She slowly sings the song.
Note: Most of the adverbs of manner are formed from an adjective, we form them by adding – ly” to the end of an adjective like “slow- slowly, happy- happily”
2. Adverbs of Place:
Adverbs of place usually show where an action happened OR it is used to indicate a place of an action.
(By, down, near, here, up, at, in, out)
He is downstairs.
I am looking up.
Note: if there is no object, these adverbs are usually placed after the verb like: He went out. But they come after Verb+ object as They find him nearby.
3. Adverbs of Time:
Adverb of time show when an action happened or it is used to denote the time when an action occurs.
(Now, then, soon, still, yet, tomorrow)
I have spoken to her already.
I have not completed the homework yet.
Note: Adverb of time are usually placed whether in the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Yesterday I hurt my foot/ I hurt my foot yesterday.
4. Adverbs of Frequency:
Adverbs of frequency show how often an action takes place or it shows the repetition of an action.
(Always, often, twice, never, again, once, seldom)
He usually makes absences.
I always pray to Allah.
Some common adverbs of frequency and their percentage of occurrence.
|Hardly ever||20- 40%|
Note: Adverbs of frequency are normally placed after the simple tenses to be like: She is usually happy in the morning.
Before the simple tenses of all other verbs like They always wake up early in the morning.
After the first Auxilary when there are many like She has never been to Paris.
5. Adverbs of Degree:
Adverbs of the degree show to what extent an action happened or it shows the degree of an adverb or an adjective.
(too, almost, fully, very, enough, so, better, rather, hardly, fairly)
She is pretty enough to win the Award.
I am so glad to meet you.
Note: Adverbs of degree are placed before adverbs or Adjective.
6. Adverbs of Sentence:
Adverbs of a sentence are used to modify the whole sentence and normally express the speaker’s opinion.
(Definitely, honestly, surely, luckily, certainly)
Surely, They are my parents.
Luckily, I am the 1st position holder.
7. Interrogative Adverbs:
Interrogative adverbs are used in asking questions.
(When, where, why, how)
Which class are you studying?
where are you from?
8. Adverbs of reason:
Adverbs of reason usually show why an action took place.
(Therefore, because of, due to, hence, owing to, the reason for)
He got the 1st position because of working hard.
He is late therefore he is punished.
9. Relative adverbs:
Relative adverbs are used to connect (join) to clauses or sentences.
(When, where, why)
This is the reason why I feel proud.
I will call you when I get free.
10. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation:
Adverbs of affirmation and negation express accepting or refusing of a question.
(Yes, no, no at all, exactly, surely, of course, perhaps)
I don’t know her.
Certainly, I am ill.
Forms of Adverbs.
Some adverbs are the same in form as the corresponding adjectives; that is some words are used sometimes as an adjective, sometimes as adverbs. Most of the adverbs are formed by adding (ly) at the end of adjectives.
Comparison of adverbs:
adverbs are similarly compared like an adjective:
1. One syllable adverbs take (-er) in the comparative form, and (-est) in the superlative form at the end of the positive degree.
fast- faster- fastest
hard- harder- hardest
deep- deeper- deepest
quick- quicker- quickest
long- longer- longest
soon- sooner- soonest
2. Adverbs of more than one syllable take (more) and (most) before positive in the comparative and superlative forms.
Calmy- more calmly- most calmly
Beautifully- more beautifully- most beautifully
Definitely- more definitely- most definitely
Swiftly- more swiftly- most swiftly
skillfully- more skillfully- most skillfully
3. Some of the commonest Adverbs form their comparative and superlative degrees irregularly.
Badly- worse- worst
well- better- best
Much- more- most
Little- less- least
Near- nearer- nearest
Far- farter- farthest
Late- later- latest