what is Conjunction? how many kinds of conjunctions we have?
Def: they may be small words, but conjunctions are highly functional and very important for constructing sentences. Basically, Conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses together OR conjunctions are words used as joiners.
Most children like chocolates and cakes. (words to words)
I don’t know about the result that level three or level four will be the winner. (phrase to phrase)
Where do you live and what is your identity are both important questions? (clause to clause)
Note: different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures. The following are the kinds of Conjunctions.
- Coordinating Conjunctions.
- Subordinating conjunctions.
- Correlative Conjunctions.
Def: coordinating conjunctions join together clauses of equal to one another.
(And, but, for, or, nor, also, either….. or, neither…..nor, yet, so)
she is short and he is tall.
Either you adjust here or leave the class.
Note: Coordinating conjunction is divided into more five parts.
- Cumulative or copulative conjunctions
- Adversative conjunctions.
- Disjunctive or alternative conjunction.
- Illative conjunctions.
- Explanatory conjunctions.
1. Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions:
Def: Cumulative conjunctions are used to connect one idea to another, it also used to say it connects or joins one action to another action.
(And, both, and as well as, too, also, then, not only, but also, besides, neither)
Both of us are the position holders.
I am good and as well as intelligent.
2. Adversative Conjunctions:
Def: Adversative conjunctions are used to show the opposition or contrast between two statements.
(But, yet, on the contrary, again, on that account, however, but…. then, only, still, while, nevertheless)
They are poor but they are happy.
He fulfils the needs of us however he is busy.
3. Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions:
Def: Disjunctive conjunctions are used t express a choice between two alternatives.
(Or, or else, either, otherwise, either… or, neither… nor, neither, nor, else)
Be attentive in the class otherwise, I will take you out.
Either she is beautiful, or she acts.
4. Illative Conjunctions:
Def: Illative conjunctions expresses an inference of something from another statement or fact.
(for, so, then, therefore)
It was too rainy, therefore we couldn’t attend the party.
You must get the position, so you will be awarded.
5. Explanatory Conjunctions:
Def: Explanatory conjunctions adds more detail about the speaker’s idea in the sentences.
(That is, that is to say, for example)
He is really a nice person that is to say I wanna marry him.
He likes many fruits for example banana, orange, apple, grapes etc
2. Subordinating conjunctions:
Def: subordinating conjunctions also joins two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent or subordinate upon the other.
A book is a book.
There is nothing in it.
- Both the independent clauses, simple sentences
A book is a book although there is nothing in it.
Although there is nothing in it, a book is a book.
- Two clauses are together.
- A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.
- a subordinating conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than coordinating conjunctions does.
Note: Subordinating conjunctions is divided into many more parts according to their meaning.
- Concession or contrast.
1.Subordinating conjunction of time:
Def: it is used to denote the time.
(before, till, since, as, when, while, etc…)
I would die before he hates.
I will wake up till you come to the home.
As I left the house I remembered the key.
2. subordinating conjunctions of manner.
Def: it is used to denote the manner
(As, in the way, how, as if, as though, etc…)
He orders me as if, I were his servant.
I will teach you how you like.
You should cut my hair in the way you cut his.
3. subordinating conjunctions of purpose:
Def: it is used to denote the purpose or Aims.
(So that, in order that, so, lest)
We invite you to the party so that you rock the party with your dancing.
She respects him so he should as well respect him.
They play football in order that they remain fit.
4. Subordinating conjunctions of condition:
Def: it is used to express condition.
(If, unless, provided that, supposing that, upon condition that)
He will help me provided that you should help him too.
If you work hard, you will pass the exam.
I won’t get a position unless I work hard.
5. subordinating conjunction of comparison:
Def: it is used to denote the comparison.
(than, as…. as)
He gets money much more than you.
She is as intelligent as her brother.
You ride faster than me.
6. subordinating conjunctions of Concession or contrast:
Def: it is used to express the contrast.
(though, although, even though, nevertheless, however, in spite of, despite)
He is blind though he is able to read.
Nevertheless, he does the bad work, I advised him not to do so.
Despite being robbed, he is still having much money.
3. Correlative Conjunctions:
Def: These conjunctions connect equal sentence elements together like two nouns and are always composed of two words.
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Note: You need to be careful with verb agreements and pronoun.
(both… And, Either… Or, Neither… Nor, Whether… Or, Not only… But also, As…As)
- Both… And- used before two words or phrase connected or joined with and to stress that each is included.
Example: Both sister and brother went to the party.
- Either… Or- use with or to indicate choices or possibilities.
Example: Either she is smart or intelligent.
- Neither… Nor- used with nor to indicate two or more people, things and actions about which something is not true.
Example: I play neither football nor hockey
- Whether… Or- used to indicate choices or possibilities.
Example: He is confused about whether to go on a picnic or read the book.
- Not Only… But Also- used to say that both of two related statements are true.
Example: Its cold not only in Quetta but also in Kashmir.
- As… As- used to make comparisons.
Example: I am as busy as a bee